• Himalaya


    The Himalaya zone consists of an area of 21, 0662 sq. km, which is around 6.41% of the country's total land surface. It includes northwest Himalayas, west Himalayas, central Himalayas and east Himalayas. It covers many states in North and North-east India. Major species of animals are leopard, Himalayan black bear, Himalayan tahr, takin, goral, Himalayan serow, Kashmir stag or hangul, musk deer, Himalayan weasel, yellow throated marten etc. This region is very rich in birds and examples are Himalayan monal, koklass pheasant, Western tragopan, Tytler’s leaf-warbler, Kashmir flycatcher, orange bullfinch, Himalayan ruby throat etc.

  • Trans Himalaya

    Trans Himalaya

    The Trans-Himalaya zone covers the high altitude areas of extreme northern portion of India within the states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal and Sikkim. Tibetan Plateau, Nanda Devi Range (Second highest mountain in India) and Kangchendzonga range (third highest mountain in world) comes under this zone. The area is a distinct biogeographic unit with harsh climatic conditions and is usually referred to as cold desert. The region is the most elevated zone on the earth and varies from 2800 m in the Indus to over 7000 m in the Himalayan and Karakoram ranges. Wildlife of this region includes snow leopard, Tibetan grey wolf, Himalayan brown bear, Tibetan sand fox, red fox, Eurasian lynx, pallas’s cat, Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle, wild yak, Tibetan wild ass, Asiatic ibex, blue sheep and pikas etc. The major species of birds in this region are Himalayan griffon, Himalayan snowcock, Tibetan partridge, Tibetan sand grouse, streaked great rosefinch and robin accentor etc.

  • Gangetic Plan

    Gangetic Plan

    This zone includes the upper Gangetic plain, the middle Gangetic plain and the lower Gangetic plain. The terai-bhabhar tract near Shivalik hill range is the only densely forested region in this zone and having the moist deciduous sal forest, semi evergreen cane forest and swamp grassland. Typical species of this region are tiger, leopard, swamp deer, One horned rhinoceros etc. The bird diversity of this region is quite rich and harbours almost 600 species of birds. The common ones are Oriental pied hornbill, great hornbill, greater spotted eagle, ferruginous pochard, lesser grey headed fish eagle, swamp francolin, Bengal florican etc

  • Desert


    The Indian desert is the north-western boundary of India. It has an elevation of about 350-450 m above sea level at the Aravalli range in the east, about 100 m in the south and west and about 20 m in the Rann of Kachchh. This region has a good network of protected areas that hosts some of the unique wildlife and birdlife. The major species are Indian wolf, desert fox, striped hyena, Asiatic wild ass, chinkara or Indian gazelle, blackbuck, blue bull, hedgehog, spiny tailed lizard, saw scaled viper and common monitor lizard. Birds of this zone are great Indian bustard, greater spotted eagle, cinereous vulture, Macqueen’s houbara, spotted sand grouse, desert finch-lark, greater hoopoe-lark and trumpeter finch.

  • Semi Arid

    Semi Arid

    This is a transition zone between the true desert in the west to the extensive communities of the Deccan Peninsular India, to the south and east. The semi-arid zone represents a characteristic savannah woodland and dry deciduous and tropical thorn forest zone. The Aravalli hills forms the heart of this zone, which is mostly covered by tropical dry deciduous and tropical thorn forest. This region supports some of the fauna which are endemic to India like Asiatic lion & gharial, the other major fauna are tiger, leopard, wolf. hyena, Sloth Bear, sambar deer, spotted deer, blackbuck, common langur, etc. common birds of this zone are Oriental white backed vulture, long billed vulture, spot billed pelican, Eastern Imperial eagle, Indian skimmer, demoiselle crane, dalmatian pelican, four types of harriers i.e. Western marsh, montagu’s, hen’s, and pallid harriers.

  • Deccan Peninsula

    Deccan Peninsula

    The Deccan Peninsula biogeographic zone includes the major portion of central and south India. The zone is almost homogenous and ranges from semi-arid to moist deciduous/semi-evergreen type of climate. The central Indian highlands comprise the Vindhya and Satpura hill ranges. The other division of this region are chhota Nagpur plateau, Eastern Ghats, Tamil Nadu plains and Karnataka plateau. The Vindhya and Satpura hill range are known for a rich diversity of flora and fauna. The Central Indian highlands are having six tiger reserves and it is considered as the best place to see tigers in the wild. Apart from tiger the region supports various species of mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds and some of them are highly endangered like the hard-ground barasingha or swamp deer and wild buffalo.

  • Western Ghats

    Western Ghats

    The Western Ghats is spread over the south western part of India, along the west coast of peninsular India. This zone is one of the 25 biodiversity 'hotspots' in the world and is one of the major tropical evergreen forested regions in India, which supports enormous plant diversity. About 4000 species of flowering plants occur in this region, which harbours nearly 27% of the total flora in India. Out of which 1500 species are endemic. The Western Ghats region has a rich biodiversity of ancient lineage. The endemism in this region is very high for example lion tailed macaque and Nilgiri leaf monkey are two of the species of primate which is endemic to this region and of ancient lineage. The other animals unique to this region are tiger, leopard, wild dogs, slender loris, and elephant, Indian gaur, Nilgiri marten, Nilgiri tahr, and Malabar giant squirrel. The endemism in amphibians and reptiles are quite high and many frog and snake species are endemic to this region. King Cobra which is the biggest poisonous snake of India is common in this region. Endemism in avifauna is also very high examples are: Nilgiri wood pigeon, Nilgiri laughing thrush, white-bellied short wing, Nilgiri flycatcher, Nilgiri pipit, Malabar grey hornbill etc.

  • Coasts


    The coastline of India stretches from western district of Gujarat to Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari) in the south west, and onwards from Cape Comorin to the Sundarbans in the east. The long stretch of coastline in the mainland has a very diverse set of biotic communities. Many marine protected areas have been created to protect this region. The long coastline supports reptiles like sea turtles, estuarine crocodile, birds and aquatic mammals.

  • North East

    North East

    The north-east Indian biogeographic zone is the transition zone between the Indian, Indo-Malay and Indo-Chinese biogeographic regions, as well as a meeting-place of Himalayan Mountains with those of Peninsular India. The region acts as a biogeographic gateway for plant migration. In India, apart from the Western Ghats, Northeast India is one of the 25 biodiversity 'hotspots' in the world. The richness of the region’s avifauna largely reflects the diversity of habitats associated with a wide altitudinal range. Northeast India supports one of the highest bird diversities in the Orient, with about 850 bird species. The eastern Himalaya and the Assam plains have been identified as an endemic bird area. The global distribution of 24 restricted-range species is limited to the region. The region’s lowland and montane moist to wet tropical evergreen forests are considered to be the northernmost limit of true tropical rainforests in the world. This region also support a good diversity of primates in India, out of 22 species of primates found in India the north east has 11 species which include hoolock gibbon, golden langur, capped langur, Assamese macaque etc. Tiger is the supreme predator with two other big cats common and clouded leopard. One horned rhinoceros and wild buffalo are the species quite common in few of the parks of this region. Many species of birds and animals are endemic to this region.

  • Islands


    Islands are essentially in two major groups the Lakshadweep islands and the Andaman group of islands. The Lakshadweep Islands are an archipelago of 27 small islands in the Arabian Sea. They are 320 km away from the Western coast. Unfortunately this part of India has no facilities for tourist. The other group of Island is called the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and they are an elongated north-south oriented group of 348 islands in the Bay of Bengal stretching for 590 km. These islands support the diversity in both terrestrial as well as marine fauna and flora. The faunal elements include sea turtles like leatherback, olive ridley and hawksbill. The estuarine crocodile, crab eating macaque and spotted deer introduced long time back. The diversity in snakes and amphibians as well as birds is quite high with great endemism.